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Organization: Transcend, A Peace and Development Network
The following information may be cited or quoted as long as the source is accurately mentioned and the words are not taken out of context.
Posted: April 27 2005,02:12 If you wrote this report, you will find a button here that you may click
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PROGRESS: Has your organization seen progress toward a culture of peace and nonviolence in your domain of action and in your constituency during the first half of the Decade?

Yes. We have contributed to the peaceful resolution of a number of international conflicts. In 2005 alone, Transcend has mediated in Sri Lanka, the Middle East, Chiapas, Aceh, Uganda, Liberia and many other conflict regions.

As an earlier example, one positive experience was the creation of a BINATIONAL ZONE between Ecuador and Peru which has been an example for other conflicts. In 1995, Johan Galtung had an opportunity to meet with the former President of Ecuador who was involved in border negotiations with Peru.  In the peace treaty of Rio de Janeiro of 1941, it was agreed that the border should run along the watershed in the upper Amazon basin.  But depending on rainfall, the watershed has
shifted.  Each country insisted that the true border is where the watershed once was closest to its neighbor.  Since 1941, Ecuador and Peru have fought four wars over this sparsely populated 500 square kilometer territory.      Galtung patiently listened to the Ex-President complain about Peru's inflexibility.  But he also always carefully listens to what people do not say.  The Ex-President never said that each square meter of territory must belong to one and only one country, because he assumed that was obvious, since that principle was adopted at the peace treaty of Westphalia in 1648.  So Galtung asked him what he thought of the idea of making the disputed border territory into a jointly administered "binational zone with a natural park," attracting tourists to benefit both countries.  The Ex-President said, "This is very original--but it is too original, it will take at least 30 years to get used to such a new idea, and another 30 years to implement it."  But out of curiosity he did propose it to
Peru in the next round of peace negotiations, and to his surprise, Peru accepted it with minor modifications.  This led to the Peace treaty signed in Brasilia on October 27, 1998.      Galtung pointed out that this initiative cost him only $250 for an extra stopover in Quito, a night in a hotel, and a very lavish meal for the Ex-President and his wife.  By comparison, the Gulf War cost $100 billion, not counting the destruction it caused. Most of all, peaceful conflict transformation can save many lives.      Most governments wait until a conflict erupts in war and then intervene with military force, instead of seeking to find a peaceful solution long before it leads to violence.  Such a policy is comparable to driving a car with closed eyes, waiting until we hit an obstacle and then calling an ambulance, instead of anticipating dangers and avoiding them.

OBSTACLES: What are the most important obstacles that have prevented progress?

- Only run by volunteer work, lack of permanent staff

- No grants or financial support.

ACTIONS: What actions have been undertaken by your organization to promote a culture of peace and nonviolence during the first half of the Decade?

TRANSCEND is based on four pillars/modes of activity: action, education/training, dissemination, research. Take Peace Museums: Action is to stimulate or build a peace museum. Education/training would have participants who want to know more about peace museums or work in them. Dissemination would inform about existing and future peace museums. Research would explore artifacts to exhibit in a peace museum and the causes and consequences of peace museums.
Action will always be the most important pillar. So far the activity has above all focused on peaceful conflict transformation, using the TRANSCEND method based on extensive dialogues with all parties, one at a time, to stimulate their creativity about possible outcomes and processes leading to those outcomes. This is then written up as a "conflict perspective", posted on the TRANSCEND web-site www.transcend.org, and updated occasionally. The reader can know more about this mediation process during the last 40+ years by reading about it in the book introducing TRANSCEND, Johan Galtung and Carl Gustav Jacobsen eds., Searching for Peace: The Road to TRANSCEND (London: Pluto, 2000), pp. 101-227.
The 45 conflicts attempted mediated can be seen on the Web-site, here we shall only list the most important ones right now:
Considerable expertise has been developed on these conflicts. However, it should be emphasized that TRANSCEND's focus is on therapy/transformation/solution rather than on diagnosis/prognosis.

The TRANSCEND Peace University (TPU) is TRANSCEND's peace education/training arm, delivering on-site and on-line courses. It was established formally at a TRANSCEND meeting held in Cambridge, MA March 2001. TPU's purpose is to prepare participants with the knowledge and skills required for professional peacework, focusing on the creative transformation of conflicts. While emphasizing graduate courses, it also provides educational programs suitable for motivated non-academic participants. All courses emphasize professional practice. Most participants have had relevant field experience and are also resource people, drawing on their own experience as they expand that experience through the course work.
TPU is a network of cooperating TRANSCEND sites where TPU courses have been tried out on-site as intensive skills institutes from one day to one week, first time Wien September 1996.

By mid-2001 there had been about 200 such workshops (Galtung had offered 133), about 3,000 participants in 30 countries, in dialogue groups in many languages; about conflict transformation using the UN/DMTP manual, and peace-building, peace journalism, democracy and human rights, nutrition rights, peace pedagogy, peace analysis, dialogue, reconciliation, nonviolent approaches to security. Participants have been ambassadors/diplomats, professors, NGO workers, students, journalists, psychiatrists, peace researchers, social workers, international civil servants. Countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaidjan, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, India, Japan, Jordan, Macedonia, North-Korea, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Romania (Cluj), Russia, South-Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, UK, US, Yugoslavia.
Each of the sites can be viewed as a node in the TRANSCEND-TPU network. The hub of the network is the TPU Global Center. Thus, the TPU courses expand the capacity of the Network Sites to offer on-site graduate education in peace studies, generally in their own language, and eventually also on-line so that participants can have the advantages of both on-site and on-line. TPU can assist them in working out recognition of TPU courses by their universities.

TPU started offering courses on-line from January 2002. The target participants are practitioners more than academics and students since this is where the demand has been articulated: UNDP and other UN personnel in the field, NGO people in the field, and, possibly, embassy personnel in conflict areas.

Phases II and III will expand to academics and students and add more theoretical courses like a core course in peace, conflict, development and civilization). More particularly, five courses of 15 weeks duration with up to 25 participants (fee $4-500) are envisaged for Phase I:

GEOPOLITICAL CONFLICTS, building on TRANSCEND's experience around the world, comparing Hawaii-Pacific, Colombia, Ulster, Euzkadi, Yugoslavia, Israel/Palestine/Middle East, Caucasus, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Korea and the USA/Eurasia Configuration (Cold War II).
Basic text: Carl Jacobsen & Johan Galtung, Searching for Peace (London: PLUTO, 2000) and articles on all conflicts.
Instructor: Jörgen Johansen and experts on the specific conflicts.

CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION, based on the manual for UNDP/DMTP, Conflict Transformation by Peaceful Means Geneva: UN, 2000.
Instructor: Johan Galtung, with teaching assistants.

PEACE BUILDING, based on a forthcoming book/manual.
Instructor: Kai-Frithjof Brand-Jacobsen.

RECONCILIATION, based on a revised manual, and other sources:
After Violence: 3R, Reconstruction, Resolution, Reconciliation.
Instructor: Jan Öberg.

PEACE JOURNALISM, based on a revised manual, and other sources:
Jake Lynch & A. McGoldrick, The Peace Journalism Option: No. 3
Instructors: Jake Lynch and Annabel McGoldrick.
With the exception of Peacekeeping and Peace Zones (for which we are not yet ready) these are the basic courses for conflict workers in conflicts with violence. These courses will be offered often.
TPU has a Board of Advisors and an Executive Committee. The TPU on-line and on-site rectors is Johan Galtung.

for peace education: TRANSCEND Peace University (TPU), and work on for peace action: TRANSCEND Conflict Service (TCS)
for peace dissemination: TRANSCEND Media Service (TMS)
for peace research: TRANSCEND Research Institute (TRI)
Experiments in these directions are being carried out on some of the TRANSCEND sites making them TRANSCEND centers. A fully fledged TRANSCEND center would work on all four modes of activity.
Some experience in dissemination was gained publishing about 30 columns through Inter-Press Service in Roma, reaching 70-80 papers, mainly in the Third World. These columns are available from TRANSCEND as #1 in our Booklet Series (#2 gives background material for several of the conflicts, #3 gives the memoranda to groups that have consulted TRANSCEND about how they could work more actively for peace, and #4 is an important tool in conflict work: Jokes to be taken seriously - to be used with care and discretion).
By and large TRANSCEND draws upon 40 years of research experience, since peace research started becoming institutionalized at the end of the 1950s. In a sense TRANSCEND is an effort to put all of this intellectual activity into conflict transformation, peace and development practice. But in so doing needs for new research arise, stimulated by practice. Thus, there is a need for a summary, in index form of much available information, like a

War Participation Index (WPI), measuring the extent to which a state historically has been involved in war;

Early Warning Index (EWI), measuring the inclination of a state (and other actors) to be involved in wars, based on the tendency to do so (WPI) and the levels of structural and cultural violence.

Conflict Transformation Index (CTI), measuring the transformation level in a given conflict, facilitating comparisons of the same conflict over time, and with other conflicts. and pointing to missing efforts as a guide to action.

TRANSCEND AND FUNDING. TRANSCEND has so far practically speaking neither asked for, nor received, any funding.  Our basic philosophy is to "earn our way", offering education/training against fees. Working for peace, like for health, should not be for profit but be a publicly available service. Consequently all our perspectives etc. are freely available.
TRANSCEND's capital is human: the skill, knowledge and experience of our members; social: the capacity of the network to generate teams for specific tasks even at very short warning, and political: no hidden agenda, independence. But there is also volunteerism presupposing jobs or other sources of income.
Under no circumstance will TRANSCEND receive any funding from governments or others who may be parties to conflicts TRANSCEND may be asked to mediate, and we are deeply skeptical of organizations willing to accept such support, thus giving up their independence.
However, untied funds will continue to be welcome, also in small quantities, to facilitate unsolicited conflict mediation (when asked by, say, OSCE or UNDP expenses are of course covered), preparation of TPU courses, stipends for participants on-site or on-line from poor countries, travel expenses, etc. Grants from the North-South foundation in Zürich and the Welden Foundation in New York have been very useful for covering scholarships for participants in two workshops in Eastern Europe.

ADVICE: What advice would you like to give to the Secretary-General and the General Assembly to promote a culture of peace and nonviolence during the second half of the Decade?

Creation of a UN Agency for Mediation, with several thousand professionals and similar to other international organisations, who can detect emerging conflicts and help transform them peacefully before they lead to war.  That would be an excellent investment for a more peaceful world.

PARTNERSHIPS: What partnerships and networks does your organization participate in, thus strengthening the global movement for a culture of peace?

Centro de Estudios Internacionales http://www.ceinicaragua.org.ni/
Focus on the Global South http://www.focusweb.org/
Peace Action, Training and Research Institute of Romania. PATRIR www.patrir.org
The Coalition for Global Solidarity www.globalsolidarity.org
The Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research (TFF) www.transnational.org
Transnational Institute http://www.tni.org/

PLANS: What new engagements are planned by your organization to promote a culture of peace and nonviolence in the second half of the Decade (2005-2010)?

Training a large number of people in peaceful conflict transformation

Supporting peace initiatives

Conflict mediation at global, national, local and personal level.

Postal address of organization

Tel: +40 742 079 716 ; Fax: +40 2 64 420 298

E-mail address of organization

email: info@transcend.org

Website address of organization


Highest priority action domain of a culture of peace

Education for a culture of peace

Second priority action domain of a culture of peace

International peace and security

Highest priority country of action (or international)


Second priority country of action (or international)

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Organization: Transcend, A Peace and Development Network

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