» Welcome Guest
[ Log In :: Register :: Search :: Help ]

Click here to add a report from another organization.
new topic
Organization: Marginalized Groups Development Orgainzation
The following information may be cited or quoted as long as the source is accurately mentioned and the words are not taken out of context.
Posted: Sep. 22 2010,09:11 If you wrote this report, you will find a button here that you may click
in order to make changes in the report.

Postal address of organization/institution


E-mail address of organization/institution


Website address of organization/institution


Telephone of organization/institution


PRIORITIES: All of the organization's domains of culture of peace activity


TOP PRIORITY: The organization's most important culture of peace activity


PARTNERSHIPS AND NETWORKS: What partnerships and networks does your organization participate in, thus strengthening the global movement for a culture of peace?

GBV, Child protection, Human rights and Poverty reduction networks

ACTIONS: What activities have been undertaken by your organization to promote a culture of peace and nonviolence during the ten years of the Decade? If you already made a report in 2005, your information from 2005 will be included in the 2010 report.

Protection / Human Rights Monitoring

To keep accurate data base, providing credible and accurate record of protection / human rights violations.
Seek to hold state institutions and individuals accountable to the rule of law and observance of human rights.
AMISOM and Peacekeeping Operations in Somalia
Under UNSC Resolution 1725, adopted in December 2006, the Security Council decided:
To authorize IGAD and Member States of the AU to establish a protection and training mission in Somalia with mandate.
Due to a severe lack of capacity, the AMISOM mission has been extremely limited. It has escorted VIPs, carried out “confidence-building patrols” within its area of operations,
protected Mogadishu airport, seaport and Villa Somalia (the presidential office), AMISOM has neither the mandate nor the capacity to protect civilians in Somalia.
In August 2009 AU meeting in Libya were agreed to change AMISOM mandate; peace keepers to peace force, in order to fight with TFG forces against anti-government armed groups whom attack AMSOM bases including Mogadishu seaport, air port and presidential office. AMISOM, faced a horrible suicide attack, which was carried out by Alshabab on 17th Sept. It was targeted a meeting between TFG and AMISOM officials at heavily guarded AMISOM compound in Mogadishu.
“Alshabab speaker told that they were responsible and committed by up to 5 persons. (Alshabab used the attack 2 UN vehicles looted from Baidoa. which easily passed heavily guarded area. And also new tactic; more than one person onboard per vehicle, usually suicidal vehicles were using only one person). The speaker told that it was the retaliation for the killing of Kenyan born American wanted Salah Ali Nabhan whom accused attacks of American Embassy in Keya, Israeli airplane attack in Mombassa Kenya and the attack on 2002 at American Embassy in Darussalam. He was killed American operation air and land; six American helicopters attacked a vehicle he was traveling, killing all on board at Marine Gubay area of Lower Shabele region, nearly 30 km apart Barawo district. And also to disturb a joint plan to kick out anti-government groups out of Mogadishu. 21 persons were killed including AMISOM deputy commander and more than 40 were injured.”

Violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, including injury and unlawful killings of civilians, have been committed by all parties to the conflict in Somalia. In other cases, troops have carried out indiscriminate shelling at populated Bakaro market, in response to attacks / shelling by armed groups. Many civilians have been injured and killed unlawfully in such onslaughts.

Human Rights Abuses by Armed Groups

Armed groups in Somalia include remnants of the IUC / Hisbul Islam and AlShabab / youth militia. They also include clan / sub-clan militias who act as bandits, carrying out raids and robberies and perpetrating abuses against civilians, including rape, looting and other forms of sexual violence. Armed group fighters and criminal elements are generally more difficult to identify by dress or appearance. The common structures of these entities are opaque in most cases, but individuals / leaders whose identity is commonly known should be held accountable before the law.

Many survivors of violence in Mogadishu reported that “armed groups” were not visible, but launched hit-and-run attacks to which the TFG and AMISOM responded with artillery fire, frequently destroying entire neighborhoods. Anti-TFG and previously    known anti-Ethiopian but now anti-foreign armed forces were referred to in a number of ways, including the “opposition” “those who are defending the land as they claim”, and “terrorists”. The term “armed groups” in this report refers to Islamist groups that have declared their violent opposition to TFG and AMISOM. All of these groups are reported to have targeted and killed civilians.
Recently fighting broke up between the two main anti-government armed groups (Alshabab and Hisbul Islam) in Lower-juba region, the fighting started after Alshabab announced new administration for middle and lower jubba, Hisbul Islam opposed the administration and the tension became high. It was defeated Hisbul Islam from the seaport city Kismayu and also other three main districts of Kenyan border. In addition there is a Pro-government Islamic group known Ahlu-suna that in 2008 a heavy fighting defeated Alshabab from Galgadud region.
After Ethiopian withdrawn from Mogadishu, Human rights violations continued as a result of fighting groups. Attacks against TFG and AMISOM forces resulted civilian casualties as well suicide attacks, shelling and stray pullets were killed and injured innocent people.  
AMISOM positions were attacked on mortars, also government police / IUC militias’ positions were attacked, as well civilian areas.
Many people were killed and / or injured mortars landed on Bakaro Market, seaport and other populated areas.
“In April Bay and Bakool authorities banned Qat to sale in the down towns and ordered to move corners of the towns. In Dinsor district of Bay region 2 persons were killed and injured 3 at the Qat market, when Qat sellers attempted to deny moving to the new locations arranged by the authority.
15th April 09 Alshabab imposed Baidoa adult female  to wear Burqa (which covers from head to feet except face) which had impact poor families particularly IDPs. There were five cases of domestic violence in Buulo sheeb IDPs camp, the reason was that the women can’t go to the market without Burqa because she may be arrested and ask money. The husband can’t afford to purchase her, the women wants to sell the market fire woods she fetched in order to fend family food, instead her the husband doesn’t agree fire woods to take himself to the market.  
8 April a young man called Bako was killed in Baidoa and the perpetrator no one captured.
25 Jun an ambulance was looted and its driver killed in Mogadishu, later the vehicle was returned to the emergency group.  
On Sept 2009 Mortars landed on disabled veterans Martini Hospital were killed eleven and injured more than 10 persons.
On Sept 28th 2 young men were killed in Mogadishu; they were accused spy.
29th Sept 2 young men were beheaded and another shot dead at Towfiiq district of Mogadishu city, no one claimed the responsibility despite the area is under anti government control.

“There were assassinations for government members”
11th March former government PM Ali Gedi security officer was killed on remote control bomb.
14th March Madina DC Ahmed Da’i survived remote control bomb targeted to him.
26th March well known interim minister Sheikh Abdikadir Ali Omar escaped assassination attempt, his secretary and one of his body guards killed a remote control bomb.
17th Jun, Banadir police chief colonel Ali Said Sheikh was killed
18th Jun suicide attack in Beletweyn was killed National Security Minister and Somali diplomat, the minister was on duty for an operation to regroup military personnel in Hiran, Bakool, Gedo and Bay regions.
05 Jun a remote control bomb targeted AMISOM was killed 2 and injure one civilian.                                                 19th Jun an MP was killed at Mogadishu in his residence Karan where a heavy fighting occurred.
08th Nov 4 men of Hammar Ade printing staff was abducted in Mogadishu, two of them were  Kenyan.
18th Nov a group of farmers were physically assaulted by Alshabab militias in their farm land.   Alshbab heard the arrival of a group of unarmed TFG army in the area.
19th Nov 2 men were arrested in suspicious for hosting a group of unarmed government army arrived in Baidoa.
25th Nov two foreign journalists more than one year in detention were released.

There is strong reluctance among Somalis whether displaced or not (particularly journalists) to provide information about violations committed by armed groups, presumably out of fear of retribution for themselves or their family. Many were  aware of rocket fire, shelling or gunfire they believed to be the result of attacks by armed groups, but said they never actually saw or were unable to identify the attackers. In other incidents, threats or warnings from armed group members were made by telephone or delivered by a third party for payment or under threat and as well face to face warning/threatening to human rights defenders or journalists.

The international community can not hear about abuses except in the context of a skirmish. International humanitarian law strictly prohibits the intentional killing of people who are not taking an active part in hostilities. It also prohibits torture or any form of inhumane treatment. Violations of these requirements and other rules of international humanitarian law constitute serious crimes and those responsible must be held to account. Many killings by armed groups may constitute war crimes.
Household Economic

To analyze the way people obtain access to the things they need to survive / prosper and identify appropriate means of assistance, for longer term development projects.
Livelihoods Protection

t is the amount of food and cash income required to protect local livelihoods. This means a level of income that gives people the option to maintain expenditure on basic non-food goods and services at the levels prevailing in the normal year.
Besides these essential non-food goods and services, the Livelihoods Protection expenditure can also contain a number of items that – while not absolutely essential for survival – can nonetheless be considered essential in terms of sustaining a minimum locally acceptable standard of living, such tea and sugar.
There are two rainy seasons in this zone and farmers plant in both seasons, but only one
season is reliable: the so-called (Deyr) in October – December (referred to here as the main season). Crops planted during the second season (the so-called (Gu’) from April – Jun) are eaten green or straight from the fields and do not produce a dry harvest.
A farmer’s consumption year runs from the start of the green harvest in January to the
following December. In this year the last season was bad, as most of the last two decades experienced for the farmers, not seen one year completely good. Both seasons may be bad or one of them is good. So that, this season seams good. In other words, it can be considered a calendar year.

Urban livelihoods
Clearly, in urban area there are opportunities to grow crops or to keep livestock. It is quite common in some areas for people to grow a little food in a garden, allotment or other plot. Similarly, it is not unusual for a small number of animals to be kept, even if it is only a few chickens or a goat and as well fewer cows.
Opportunities for own production will of course tend to increase further if it is away from the city centre, and may be quite substantial in city corners or semi-urban areas where house plot sizes are larger and settlements interspersed with fields or grazing land. In these areas, vegetable production for the urban market may be an especially important source of cash income. If work is to be done in city corners or semi-urban area.
Vegetable production for the urban market is especially important source of cash income.
Urban households mostly have close links to rural relatives, especially if they are themselves relatively recent migrants from a rural area. This may result in several types of mutual assistance. Rural relatives may send food (or urban households may collect it while on visits home), while urban migrants may send gifts in cash or in kind. Or a rural relative may come to work for a better-off household as a domestic servant or casual labour. There are fewer year-to-year and seasonal variations affecting urban areas.

Livelihoods Protection Deficit:
Marginalized community households total income is no longer sufficient to cover the cost of survival plus the expenditure required to protect local livelihoods, and an intervention of some kind is required to cover the deficit. At this level, local people can still cover expenditure on survival provided, they accord these needs a high enough priority. In other words, people should not have to go hungry at this level, although they will have to resort to other high-cost strategies including a reduction in expenditure on productive inputs and non food items.

Survival Deficit:
At this level, marginalized communities households total income is insufficient to cover the cost of survival, even if full use is made of all the available resources, and all the money usually used to protect livelihoods is switched to the purchase of staple foods. It is very probable people face hungry, even if they resort to other undesirable high-cost coping strategies.
This is potentially quite an important strategy in marginalized community households; they sell rather than consume a proportion of their food crops. The case is they sold post-harvest at a relatively low price. In Bay region, this year last season was bad so people migrate to the cities such Baidoa and Mogadishu (IDPs camps).

Better-off households in the more productive zones do not necessarily sell all their surplus production; they may also put some aside for storage. In a bad year that proportion of production that is normally stored can be diverted towards consumption. At the time of severe drought people turn to wild foods that can yield significant amounts of food energy (such as wild roots and tubers). This severely limits the effectiveness of wild food consumption as a response to crisis in Somalia.

Casual labour
If one of the two seasons of the normal year fails small holders out-migrate in search of labour, it is an important strategy. They may be paid for in either cash or food. Attempting to expand labour is an important coping strategy pursued by ‘poor’ households at times of drought or when small holder households face food shortage. Since rural employers will be affected by local problems as well then there would be one possibility during drought. That is more work gets done, but at a lower wage rate, mostly poor households often report doing more work in a bad year. The market for rural products such as firewood, grass, handicrafts etc demand is probably relatively inflexible, so that any increase in market supply will tend to be counteracted by a reduction in prices, bringing little net benefit to the rural producer. In the case of firewood and charcoal, there is the additional consideration of the effect on the environment to consider.

Reducing non-essential expenditure and using the money to purchase staple foods or other essential items is potentially quite an important strategy for all wealth groups.
Sugar is everywhere purchased by all wealth groups in Somalia and in some areas there is scope for switching expenditure from more expensive sugar calories to cheaper sorghum. There may also be scope for reducing expenditure on meat, oil and pulses, and using the money to purchase cheaper staple foods. This means that poor urban populations are highly vulnerable to changes in market conditions and especially to changes in the price of basic food and non-food commodities. Because the household cannot accumulate enough capital to start even the smallest of petty trade or business activities, poor households face unemployment during drought and household’s material to sell is limited. Children are part of the household income source, they work shoe polish, car was and constructions, sometimes begging. In Baidoa Alshabab captured the city on January 2009 that increased unemployment caused low income, household live is insufficient one squire meal per day.

PROGRESS: Has your organization seen progress toward a culture of peace and nonviolence in your domain of action and in your constituency during the second half of the Decade?

the organization has achieved to collect reliable data on poverty and social economic

OBSTACLES: Has your organization faced any obstacles to implementing the culture of peace and nonviolence? If so, what were they?

Increasingly skewed income distributions and vast economic inequalities exist in Somalia. With much of the marginalized community live under a dollar a day, there are obvious needs everywhere. However, humanitarian aid and development resources are limited.

PLANS: What new engagements are planned by your organization in the short, medium and long term to promote a culture of peace and nonviolence?

Year one
o Community management committee operate in the community as a basis of sustainability
o At least two effective projects planed in the community
o Malnutrition level of project target reduced

Up to 5 years
o IDPs residents govern the organization through the process of  democratic decision-making. By year 5.
o Livelihoods of project beneficiaries improved

Over 5 years
o Organization is owned and controlled by the community and is financially and socially viable. By year 10.
o Self-reliance and self-help of the target group improved

GLOBAL MOVEMENT: How do you think the culture of peace and nonviolence could be strengthened and supported at the world level??

Strenghening international networking and collaboration between Civil Society.
Back to top
Organization: Marginalized Groups Development Orgainzation

Click here to add a report from another organization.
new topic